Margaret Thatcher Years As Pm

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Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher (* Oktober als Margaret Hilda Roberts in Arrow, London , S. f.; Margaret Thatcher, The Downing Street Years. HarperCollins, London , S. Peter Hennessy: The Prime Minister: The Office and Its Holders since Penguin, London , S. ff. Sir John Major, KG, CH (* März in London) ist ein britischer Politiker und Angehöriger der Konservativen Partei. Vom November bis 2. Mai war er als Nachfolger von Margaret Thatcher Premierminister des MarrShow: Ex PM John Major on Europe, UKIP (16Nov14). In: YouTube. November ​. Margaret Thatcher: The Autobiography | Thatcher, Margaret | ISBN: the crises and triumphs, during her eleven years as prime minister, including the Falklands​. In Margaret Thatcher became the first woman British Prime Minister. A decade later she became the first premier for years to win three consecutive​. Conservative Government under Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher. Charles Powell served for many years in the British diplomatic service as advisor on.

Margaret Thatcher Years As Pm

Margaret Thatcher: The Autobiography | Thatcher, Margaret | ISBN: the crises and triumphs, during her eleven years as prime minister, including the Falklands​. Perfekte P.M. Margaret Thatcher Stock-Fotos und -Bilder sowie aktuelle Margaret Thatcher returns to the Conservative conference a year after being deposed. Margret Thatcher Downing Street Years HC a world leader and the events and personalities that shaped her years as Britain's prime minister.

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Thatcher war eine enge Kooperation der europäischen Staaten zwar wichtig, allerdings warnte sie stets vor einem Wetten Wien Superstaat. Fireshot UK entsandte Umstritten ist bis heute die Bedeutung der Wirtschaftspolitik Thatchers. Nach ihrem Erfolg beförderte sie viele ihrer engsten Anhänger. Durch den Erfolg Thatchers und die Privatisierung vieler Unternehmen sowie die Zerstrittenheit der Gewerkschaften sank deren Einfluss dauerhaft. Oktober als jüngere von Casino Wilhelmshaven Töchtern geboren. Margaret Thatcher Years As Pm

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Haus Publishing, London , S. Positiv herausgestrichen wurde die Freiheit des Individuums. Stephenson aus Lincolnshire war eine gelernte Hausschneiderin. Dort arbeitete er sich stetig nach oben und fungierte u. Perfekte P.M. Margaret Thatcher Stock-Fotos und -Bilder sowie aktuelle Margaret Thatcher returns to the Conservative conference a year after being deposed. Prime Minister David Cameron drives the two millionth MINI off the David Cameron revealed earlier that he hasn't driven a car in four and a half years. Margaret Thatcher left other prime ministers in the shade after her. Margaret Thatcher. This article is more than 7 years old. Queen made personal decision to attend Lady Thatcher's funeral. This article is more. Margret Thatcher Downing Street Years HC a world leader and the events and personalities that shaped her years as Britain's prime minister. Her presence elevates its status to Roulett Tischlimit of state funeral in all but name. This is less to do with Quarsar — although protocol prevented Queen Victoria from attending the funeral of Benjamin Disraeli, and m onarchs did not attend funerals Schwimmen Spielen Ohne Anmeldung all until William IV's reign. Sie musste erkennen, dass ihr Zoom Poker Strategie Zögling in vielen Punkten, insbesondere der Europapolitik und der Sozialpolitik, andere Ansichten als sie selbst hatte und eine andere Politik verfolgte. I do Voodoo Casino there was Wulfener Markt mutual respect. Februar erlitten Heaths Konservative jedoch eine Niederlage; es gab zum ersten Mal seit ein hung parliament — keine Partei hatte die absolute Mehrheit erreicht. Die Friedensbewegung und deren Wunsch Spiel Eaffe bedingungsloser unilateraler Abrüstung verspottete sie als reines Wunschdenken. Im Februar verweigerte ihr die University of Oxford die Ehrendoktorwürde mit der normalerweise jeder Premierminister ausgezeichnet wird aus Protest gegen Kürzungen im Neue Handyspiele. Margaret Thatcher wurde in den Privy Council Sportwetten Bonus Schieben Königin berufen. Die kurz nach ihrem Amtsantritt erfolgte Sowjetische Intervention in Afghanistan verurteilte Thatcher scharf und erklärte den Bankrott der Entspannungspolitik. Thatcher habe dies wie die Hinweise Hayeks auf das Wunder von Chile insoweit zurückgewiesen, als dies unter den Bedingungen einer Demokratie nicht durchzusetzen sei. Thatcher used strikes in through as reasons to further restrict union power. See also: Cold War — and Cold War — Mindestalter Casino Deutschland LawsonView from No. Margaret Thatcher had been prime minister for 11 years and days. Before becoming prime minister, she was a politician at lower levels and a research chemist. She was elected Member of Parliament for Finchley in The policy of privatisationwhile anathema to many on the left, has become synonymous with Casino Play Free Games and was also followed by Tony Blair 's government.

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Die meisten politischen Beobachter erwarteten, dass er bei den Unterhauswahlen im April gegen die Labour Party unter Neil Kinnock verlieren würde. In: Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte. State funerals are normally limited to sovereigns, but may, by order of the reigning monarch, be extended to exceptionally distinguished individuals. Sowohl der damals amtierende Premierminister David Cameron als auch seine überlebenden Vorgänger spendeten Margaret Thatcher höchstes Lob. The Queen attended Churchill's funeral in , But there is no rule book governing this unique set of circumstances so her decision to attend, with the Duke of Edinburgh, can be interpreted as a highly personal and significant gesture, indicative of the respect she had for the eighth and longest-serving of her prime ministers. November sprach sich Major engagiert für einen Verbleib des Vereinigten Königreichs in der Europäischen Union aus. In: Stuttgarter Zeitung, 8. Margaret Thatcher Years As Pm

In domestic affairs, Thatcher opposed Scottish devolution home rule and the creation of a Scottish Assembly.

She instructed Conservative MPs to vote against the Scotland and Wales Bill in December , which was successfully defeated, and then when new Bills were proposed she supported amending the legislation to allow the English to vote in the referendum on Scottish devolution.

Britain's economy during the s was so weak that then foreign secretary James Callaghan warned his fellow Labour Cabinet members in of the possibility of "a breakdown of democracy", telling them: "If I were a young man, I would emigrate.

Now prime minister, Callaghan surprised many by announcing on 7 September that there would be no general election that year and he would wait until before going to the polls.

Thatcher reacted to this by branding the Labour government "chickens", and Liberal Party leader David Steel joined in, criticising Labour for "running scared".

The Labour government then faced fresh public unease about the direction of the country and a damaging series of strikes during the winter of —79, dubbed the " Winter of Discontent ".

The Conservatives attacked the Labour government's unemployment record, using advertising with the slogan " Labour Isn't Working ".

A general election was called after the Callaghan ministry lost a motion of no confidence in early The Conservatives won a seat majority in the House of Commons and Thatcher became the first female British prime minister.

I stand before you tonight in my Red Star chiffon evening gown, my face softly made up and my fair hair gently waved, the Iron Lady of the Western world.

In , Thatcher gave her "Britain Awake" foreign policy speech which lambasted the Soviet Union for seeking world dominance.

The Sunday Times covered the Red Star article the next day, [] and Thatcher embraced the epithet a week later; in a speech to Finchley Conservatives she compared it to the Duke of Wellington 's nickname "The Iron Duke".

Thatcher became prime minister on 4 May Where there is discord, may we bring harmony; Where there is error, may we bring truth; Where there is doubt, may we bring faith; And where there is despair, may we bring hope.

In office throughout the s, Thatcher was frequently described as the most powerful woman in the world. Thatcher was Opposition leader and prime minister at a time of increased racial tension in Britain.

Commenting on the local elections of , The Economist noted: "The Tory tide swamped the smaller parties.

That specifically includes the National Front NF , which suffered a clear decline from last year. The moment the minority threatens to become a big one, people get frightened".

One question that continued to fascinate the public about the phenomenon of a woman Prime Minister was how she got on with the Queen.

The answer is that their relations were punctiliously correct, but there was little love lost on either side.

As two women of very similar age — Mrs Thatcher was six months older — occupying parallel positions at the top of the social pyramid, one the head of government, the other head of state, they were bound to be in some sense rivals.

Mrs Thatcher's attitude to the Queen was ambivalent. On the one hand she had an almost mystical reverence for the institution of the monarchy Yet at the same time she was trying to modernise the country and sweep away many of the values and practices which the monarchy perpetuated.

Michael Shea , the Queen's press secretary, had reportedly leaked anonymous rumours of a rift, which were officially denied by her private secretary , William Heseltine.

Thatcher later wrote: "I always found the Queen's attitude towards the work of the Government absolutely correct Thatcher's economic policy was influenced by monetarist thinking and economists such as Milton Friedman and Alan Walters.

Some Heathite Conservatives in the Cabinet, the so-called " wets ", expressed doubt over Thatcher's policies.

At the Conservative Party conference, Thatcher addressed the issue directly, with a speech written by the playwright Ronald Millar , [] that notably included the following lines:.

To those waiting with bated breath for that favourite media catchphrase, the "U" turn, I have only one thing to say. The lady's not for turning.

By , the UK began to experience signs of economic recovery; [] inflation was down to 8. During the Conservative Party Conference, Thatcher said: "We have done more to roll back the frontiers of socialism than any previous Conservative Government.

There is no such thing as public money; there is only taxpayers' money. By , unemployment was falling, the economy was stable and strong and inflation was low.

Opinion polls showed a comfortable Conservative lead, and local council election results had also been successful, prompting Thatcher to call a general election for 11 June that year, despite the deadline for an election still being 12 months away.

The election saw Thatcher re-elected for a third successive term. Thatcher reformed local government taxes by replacing domestic rates a tax based on the nominal rental value of a home with the Community Charge or poll tax in which the same amount was charged to each adult resident.

Thatcher on the ongoing miners' dispute in Thatcher believed that the trade unions were harmful to both ordinary trade unionists and the public.

Thatcher refused to meet the union's demands and compared the miners' dispute to the Falklands War , declaring in a speech in "We had to fight the enemy without in the Falklands.

We always have to be aware of the enemy within, which is much more difficult to fight and more dangerous to liberty. After a year out on strike, in March the NUM leadership conceded without a deal.

Her strategy of preparing fuel stocks, appointing hardliner Ian MacGregor as NCB leader, and ensuring that police were adequately trained and equipped with riot gear, contributed to her triumph over the striking miners.

The policy of privatisation has been called "a crucial ingredient of Thatcherism". Some of the privatised industries, including gas, water , and electricity, were natural monopolies for which privatisation involved little increase in competition.

The privatised industries that demonstrated improvement sometimes did so while still under state ownership. British Steel Corporation had made great gains in profitability while still a nationalised industry under the government-appointed MacGregor chairmanship, which faced down trade-union opposition to close plants and halve the workforce.

In most cases privatisation benefited consumers in terms of lower prices and improved efficiency, but results overall have been mixed.

But I hasten to emphasise again that the literature is not unanimous. Thatcher always resisted privatising British Rail and was said to have told Transport Secretary Nicholas Ridley : "Railway privatisation will be the Waterloo of this government.

Please never mention the railways to me again. The privatisation of public assets was combined with financial deregulation in an attempt to fuel economic growth.

Chancellor Geoffrey Howe abolished the UK's exchange controls in , [] which allowed more capital to be invested in foreign markets, and the Big Bang of removed many restrictions on the London Stock Exchange.

Some rights were restored to paramilitary prisoners, but not official recognition of political status. Thatcher narrowly escaped injury in an IRA assassination attempt at a Brighton hotel early in the morning on 12 October Thatcher was staying at the hotel to prepare for the Conservative Party conference, which she insisted should open as scheduled the following day.

Thatcher supported an active climate protection policy; [nb 5] she was instrumental in the passing of the Environmental Protection Act , [] the founding of the Hadley Centre for Climate Research and Prediction , [] the establishment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change , [] and the ratification of the Montreal Protocol on preserving the ozone.

Thatcher helped to put climate change , acid rain and general pollution in the British mainstream in the late s, [] [] calling for a global treaty on climate change in Thatcher appointed Lord Carrington , a senior member of the party and former Minister of Defence , as Foreign Minister in The first issue was what to do with Rhodesia , where the five-percent white population was determined to rule the prosperous, largely-black ex-colony in the face of overwhelming international disapproval.

After the collapse of the Portuguese Empire in Africa in , South Africa, which had been Rhodesia's chief supporter, realised that country was a liability.

The conference ended the Rhodesian Bush War. The end result was the new nation of Zimbabwe under black rule in Thatcher's first foreign-policy crisis came with the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.

Britain's economic situation was precarious, and most of NATO was reluctant to cut trade ties. The Financial Times reported [ when?

Having withdrawn formal recognition from the Pol Pot regime in , [] the Thatcher government backed the Khmer Rouge keeping their UN seat after they were ousted from power in Cambodia by the Cambodian—Vietnamese War.

Although Thatcher denied it at the time, [] it was revealed in that, while not directly training any Khmer Rouge, [] from the Special Air Service SAS was sent to secretly train "the armed forces of the Cambodian non-communist resistance" that remained loyal to Prince Norodom Sihanouk and his former prime minister Son Sann in the fight against the Vietnamese-backed puppet regime.

Thatcher was one of the first Western leaders to respond warmly to reformist Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. Defence Secretary Michael Heseltine , who had supported the Agusta deal, resigned from the government in protest.

Bush , who succeeded Reagan in , she recommended intervention, [] and put pressure on Bush to deploy troops in the Middle East to drive the Iraqi Army out of Kuwait.

On 2 April the ruling military junta in Argentina ordered the invasion of the British possessions of the Falkland Islands and South Georgia , triggering the Falklands War.

Thatcher was criticised for the neglect of the Falklands' defence that led to the war , and especially by Tam Dalyell in Parliament for the decision to torpedo the General Belgrano , but overall she was considered a highly capable and committed war leader.

China was the first communist state Thatcher had visited and she was the first British prime minister to visit China. Throughout their meeting, she sought the PRC's agreement to a continued British presence in the territory.

Deng insisted that the PRC's sovereignty on Hong Kong was non-negotiable, but stated his willingness to settle the sovereignty issue with the British government through formal negotiations, and both governments promised to maintain Hong Kong's stability and prosperity.

Despite saying that she was in favour of "peaceful negotiations" to end apartheid , [] [] Thatcher opposed sanctions imposed on South Africa by the Commonwealth and the European Economic Community EEC.

This included "[c]asting herself as President Botha 's candid friend", and inviting him to visit the UK in , [] in spite of the "inevitable demonstrations" against his government.

This shows what a typical terrorist organisation it is. I fought terrorism all my life and if more people fought it, and we were all more successful, we should not have it and I hope that everyone in this hall will think it is right to go on fighting terrorism.

We have much to thank her for. Thatcher and her party supported British membership of the EEC in the national referendum [] and the Single European Act of , and obtained the UK rebate on contributions, [] but she believed that the role of the organisation should be limited to ensuring free trade and effective competition, and feared that the EEC approach was at odds with her views on smaller government and deregulation.

We have not successfully rolled back the frontiers of the state in Britain, only to see them re-imposed at a European level, with a European super-state exercising a new dominance from Brussels.

Thatcher was challenged for the leadership of the Conservative Party by the little-known backbench MP Sir Anthony Meyer in the leadership election.

Her supporters in the party viewed the result as a success, and rejected suggestions that there was discontent within the party.

Since the resignation of Nigel Lawson as Chancellor in October , [] polls consistently showed that she was less popular than her party.

Britain joined the ERM in October On 1 November , Howe, by then the last remaining member of Thatcher's original cabinet, resigned from his position as deputy prime minister , ostensibly over her open hostility to moves towards European Monetary Union.

How on earth are the Chancellor and the Governor of the Bank of England, commending the hard ECU as they strive to, to be taken as serious participants in the debate against that kind of background noise?

I believe that both the Chancellor and the Governor are cricketing enthusiasts, so I hope that there is no monopoly of cricketing metaphors.

It is rather like sending your opening batsmen to the crease only for them to find, the moment the first balls are bowled, that their bats have been broken before the game by the team captain.

A second ballot was therefore necessary. She reportedly regarded her ousting as a betrayal. Thatcher was replaced as head of government and party leader by Chancellor John Major , who prevailed over Heseltine in the subsequent ballot.

Thatcher returned to the backbenches as a constituency parliamentarian after leaving the premiership. On leaving the Commons, Thatcher became the first former British prime minister to set up a foundation; [] the British wing of the Margaret Thatcher Foundation was dissolved in due to financial difficulties.

In she and her husband Denis moved to a house in Chester Square , a residential garden square in central London's Belgravia district.

Thatcher became an advocate of Croatian and Slovenian independence. She made a series of speeches in the Lords criticising the Maastricht Treaty , [] describing it as "a treaty too far" and stated: "I could never have signed this treaty.

Dicey when arguing that, as all three main parties were in favour of the treaty, the people should have their say in a referendum.

After Tony Blair 's election as Labour Party leader in , Thatcher praised Blair as "probably the most formidable Labour leader since Hugh Gaitskell ", adding: "I see a lot of socialism behind their front bench, but not in Mr Blair.

I think he genuinely has moved. In , Thatcher called for the release of former Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet when Spain had him arrested and sought to try him for human rights violations.

She cited the help he gave Britain during the Falklands War. At the general election , Thatcher supported the Conservative campaign, as she had done in and , and in the Conservative leadership election following its defeat, she endorsed Iain Duncan Smith over Kenneth Clarke.

Bush to aggressively tackle the "unfinished business" of Iraq under Saddam Hussein , [] and praised Blair for his "strong, bold leadership" in standing with Bush in the Iraq War.

She broached the same subject in her Statecraft: Strategies for a Changing World , which was published in April and dedicated to Ronald Reagan , writing that there would be no peace in the Middle East until Saddam Hussein was toppled.

Her book also said that Israel must trade land for peace , and that the European Union EU was a "fundamentally unreformable", "classic utopian project, a monument to the vanity of intellectuals, a programme whose inevitable destiny is failure".

Following several small strokes she was advised by her doctors not to engage in further public speaking. Thatcher , p. On 11 June , Thatcher against doctor's orders attended the state funeral service for Ronald Reagan.

In , Thatcher criticised the way the decision to invade Iraq had been made two years previously. Although she still supported the intervention to topple Saddam Hussein, she said that as a scientist she would always look for "facts, evidence and proof", before committing the armed forces.

In , Thatcher attended the official Washington, D. The bronze statue stands opposite that of her political hero, Sir Winston Churchill , [] and was unveiled on 21 February with Thatcher in attendance; she remarked in the Members' Lobby of the Commons: "I might have preferred iron — but bronze will do It won't rust.

Thatcher was a public supporter of the Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism and the resulting Prague Process, and sent a public letter of support to its preceding conference.

After collapsing at a House of Lords dinner, Thatcher, suffering low blood pressure , [] was admitted to St Thomas' Hospital in central London on 7 March for tests.

In she was hospitalised again when she fell and broke her arm. Stone was previously commissioned to paint portraits of the Queen and Queen Mother.

Thatcher's daughter Carol first revealed that her mother had dementia in , [] saying "Mum doesn't read much any more because of her memory loss".

In her memoir, Carol wrote that her mother "could hardly remember the beginning of a sentence by the time she got to the end". Baroness Thatcher died on 8 April , at the age of 87, after suffering a stroke.

She had been staying at a suite in the Ritz Hotel in London since December after having difficulty with stairs at her Chester Square home in Belgravia.

Reactions to the news of Thatcher's death were mixed across the UK, ranging from tributes lauding her as Britain's greatest-ever peacetime prime minister to public celebrations of her death and expressions of hatred and personalised vitriol.

Details of Thatcher's funeral had been agreed with her in advance. After the service at St Paul's Cathedral, Thatcher's body was cremated at Mortlake Crematorium , where her husband had been cremated.

In a private ceremony, Thatcher's ashes were interred in the grounds of the hospital, next to those of her husband.

Thatcherism represented a systematic and decisive overhaul of the post-war consensus , whereby the major political parties largely agreed on the central themes of Keynesianism , the welfare state , nationalised industry, and close regulation of the economy, and high taxes.

Thatcher generally supported the welfare state, while proposing to rid it of abuses. She promised in that the highly popular National Health Service was "safe in our hands".

Heavily influenced by right-wing think tanks, and especially by Keith Joseph , [] Thatcher broadened her attack. Thatcherism came to refer to her policies as well as aspects of her ethical outlook and personal style, including moral absolutism , nationalism , interest in the individual , and an uncompromising approach to achieving political goals.

Thatcher defined her own political philosophy, in a major and controversial break with the "one-nation" conservatism [] of her predecessor Edward Heath , in a interview published in Woman's Own magazine:.

I think we have gone through a period when too many children and people have been given to understand "I have a problem, it is the Government's job to cope with it!

There is no such thing! There are individual men and women and there are families and no government can do anything except through people and people look to themselves first.

It is our duty to look after ourselves and then also to help look after our neighbour and life is a reciprocal business and people have got the entitlements too much in mind without the obligations.

The number of adults owning shares rose from 7 per cent to 25 per cent during her tenure, and more than a million families bought their council houses, giving an increase from 55 per cent to 67 per cent in owner occupiers from to The houses were sold at a discount of 33—55 per cent, leading to large profits for some new owners.

Personal wealth rose by 80 per cent in real terms during the s, mainly due to rising house prices and increased earnings. Shares in the privatised utilities were sold below their market value to ensure quick and wide sales, rather than maximise national income.

The "Thatcher years" were also marked by periods of high unemployment and social unrest, [] [] and many critics on the left of the political spectrum fault her economic policies for the unemployment level; many of the areas affected by mass unemployment as well as her monetarist economic policies remained blighted for decades, by such social problems as drug abuse and family breakdown.

Speaking in Scotland in , Thatcher insisted she had no regrets and was right to introduce the " poll tax " and withdraw subsidies from "outdated industries, whose markets were in terminal decline", subsidies that created "the culture of dependency, which had done such damage to Britain".

Critics on the left describe her as divisive [] and claim she condoned greed and selfishness. Journalist Michael White , writing in the aftermath of the —08 financial crisis , challenged the view that her reforms were still a net benefit.

Thatcher did "little to advance the political cause of women" either within her party or the government. Purvis claims that, although Thatcher had struggled laboriously against the sexist prejudices of her day to rise to the top, she made no effort to ease the path for other women.

Thatcher did not regard women's rights as requiring particular attention as she did not, especially during her premiership, consider that women were being deprived of their rights.

She had once suggested the shortlisting of women by default for all public appointments, yet had also proposed that those with young children ought to leave the work force.

Thatcher's stance on immigration in the late s was perceived as part of a rising racist public discourse, [] which Barker terms " new racism ".

Her strategy was to undermine the NF narrative by acknowledging that many of their voters had serious concerns in need of addressing.

In she criticised Labour immigration policy with the goal of attracting voters away from the NF and to the Conservatives. Critics on the left accused her of pandering to racism.

Many Thatcherite policies had an influence on the Labour Party, [] [] which returned to power in under Tony Blair. Blair rebranded the party " New Labour " in with the aim of increasing its appeal beyond its traditional supporters, [] and to attract those who had supported Thatcher, such as the " Essex man ".

Shortly after Thatcher's death in , Scottish First Minister Alex Salmond argued that her policies had the "unintended consequence" of encouraging Scottish devolution.

Campbell b , p. Thatcher's tenure of 11 years and days as prime minister was the longest since Lord Salisbury 13 years and days, in three spells and the longest continuous period in office since Lord Liverpool 14 years and days.

She was chosen as the Woman of the Year , the year in which the Falklands War began under her command and resulted in the British victory. In contrast to her relatively poor average approval rating as prime minister, [] Thatcher has since ranked highly in retrospective opinion polling and, according to YouGov , she is "see[n] in overall positive terms" by the British public.

According to theatre critic Michael Billington , [] Thatcher left an "emphatic mark" on the arts while Prime Minister.

The album was released in September Thatcher was the subject or the inspiration for s protest songs. Thatcher was parodied by Wells in several media.

He collaborated with Richard Ingrams on the spoof " Dear Bill " letters, which ran as a column in Private Eye magazine; they were also published in book form and became a West End stage revue titled Anyone for Denis?

Since her resignation, Thatcher has been portrayed in a number of television programmes, documentaries, films and plays. She is the protagonist in two films, played by Lindsay Duncan in Margaret and by Meryl Streep in The Iron Lady , [] in which she is depicted as suffering from dementia or Alzheimer's disease.

Thatcher became a privy councillor PC on becoming a secretary of state in Her husband Denis was made a hereditary baronet at the same time.

In the Falklands, Margaret Thatcher Day has been marked each 10 January since , [] commemorating her first visit to the Islands in January , six months after the end of the Falklands War in June Thatcher became a member of the Lords in with a life peerage as Baroness Thatcher, of Kesteven in the County of Lincolnshire.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Iron Lady disambiguation and Margaret Thatcher disambiguation. British prime minister from to The Right Honourable.

Thatcher c. Harold Wilson James Callaghan. Serving with Richard Sharples and Lynch Maydon. Shadow Cabinet offices.

Lord Temporal. Denis Thatcher. Mark Carol. Barrister chemist politician. This article is part of a series about.

Secretary of State for Education and Science. Grantham: Margaret Thatcher's birthplace. Commemorative plaque [4].

Margaret and her elder sister were raised in the bottom of two flats on North Parade. This woman is headstrong, obstinate and dangerously self-opinionated.

See also: Shadow Cabinet of Margaret Thatcher. Main article: Premiership of Margaret Thatcher. Thatcher's 10 Downing Street , c. See also: budget.

We had to fight the enemy without in the Falklands. Thatcher with President George H. Bush in Aspen, Colorado , Main articles: Conservative Party leadership election and Conservative Party leadership election.

Extract from The Downing Street Years. Being Prime Minister is a lonely job. In a sense, it ought to be: you cannot lead from the crowd.

But with Denis there I was never alone. What a man. What a husband. What a friend. Thatcher in the US, Main article: Death and funeral of Margaret Thatcher.

Thatcher's coffin being carried up the steps of St Paul's Cathedral. Related movements. Margaret Thatcher was not merely the first woman and the longest-serving Prime Minister of modern times, but the most admired, most hated, most idolised and most vilified public figure of the second half of the twentieth century.

To some she was the saviour of her country who To others, she was a narrow ideologue whose hard-faced policies legitimised greed, deliberately increased inequality There is no reconciling these views: yet both are true.

Main article: Cultural depictions of Margaret Thatcher. Main article: Honours of Margaret Thatcher. Orders of chivalry.

The Garter Good Hope Merit St John Shown are the ribbons for each Order bestowed on Thatcher. Thatcher The Downing Street Years.

The Path to Power. Statecraft: Strategies for a Changing World. Harper Perennial. Not the timbre so much as, well, the tone — the condescending explanatory whine which treats the squirming interlocutor as an eight-year-old child with personality deficiencies.

It has been fascinating, recently, to watch her striving to eliminate this. She was saying that she wouldn't dream of seeking the leadership.

She sounded like a cat sliding down a blackboard. But the chemistry between them worked. Reagan had been grateful for her interest in him at a time when the British establishment refused to take him seriously; she agreed with him about the importance of creating wealth, cutting taxes, and building up stronger defences against Soviet Russia; and both believed in liberty and free-market freedom, and in the need to outface what Reagan would later call 'the evil empire'.

Because they are here, they are subject to terrorist attack. It is inconceivable that they should be refused the right to use American aircraft and American pilots in the inherent right of self-defence, to defend their own people.

In this she was less radical than her critics or some of her admirers supposed. Her concern was to focus more on abuse of the system, on bureaucracy and union militancy, and on the growth of what later came to be called the dependency culture, rather than on the system itself.

By the s, both major parties Conservative and Labour had taken similar positions on immigration policy; [] the British Nationality Act was passed with cross-party support.

Retrieved 28 July The Critic Magazine. Retrieved 18 July Who's Who. Retrieved 15 December Belfast Telegraph. Associated Press.

Thatcher: The Battle for Britain's Soul". National Review. Retrieved 21 April The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 25 July Kesteven and Grantham Girls' School.

Archived from the original on 28 January Retrieved 9 April Popular Science. Retrieved 22 November London Review of Books. Retrieved 11 June The Guardian.

Retrieved 31 December BBC News. Retrieved 12 April Retrieved 29 April The Economist. In Aneurin Bevan called the Conservative Party 'lower than vermin' The Tories embraced the phrase; some formed the Vermin Club in response Margaret Thatcher was a member.

Parliamentary Debates Hansard. House of Lords. Retrieved 10 January Retrieved 6 January The London Gazette. Margaret Thatcher Foundation.

Retrieved 8 April BBC News Magazine. Retrieved 16 June House of Commons. The Independent. Retrieved 2 November The Sunday Telegraph.

Retrieved 28 October The Spectator published 25 January Retrieved 13 July The Times. Retrieved 14 October Retrieved 29 September The Observer.

Vanity Fair. Retrieved 25 February The Times Amid uproar from both sides of the house, Mrs Thatcher shouted: 'So you are afraid of an election are you?

Afraid, Afraid, Afraid. Frightened, frit — couldn't take it. Couldn't stand it. Retrieved 13 April The Scotsman.

Retrieved 20 April On This Day — Retrieved 13 January Retrieved 17 October Krasnaya zvezda. The Sunday Times. Archived from the original PDF on 29 October Retrieved 20 May While it has been applied to other women since from politicians to tennis players , the resonance with Margaret Thatcher remains the strongest.

Retrieved 21 March The Philadelphia Inquirer Magazine. Conservative Central Office. Retrieved 19 June — via the Margaret Thatcher Foundation.

Retrieved 23 July Retrieved 20 January Retrieved 21 December Retrieved 31 March Retrieved 12 January Retrieved 16 April Retrieved 21 November Retrieved 7 April BBC Politics Retrieved 14 November Financial Times.

Retrieved 8 October The New York Times. Retrieved 30 October Retrieved 30 December Archived from the original on 3 July Retrieved 29 October The Wall Street Journal.

The Record. The Journal. Retrieved 5 July Retrieved 20 November Press Association. Retrieved 26 December Bitter coal strike wrenched British economy, society".

The Dallas Morning News. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography online ed. Oxford University Press. Subscription or UK public library membership required.

Institute of Economic Affairs. Retrieved 19 February Retrieved 19 June Retrieved 5 January Conflict Archive on the Internet.

Ulster University. Retrieved 27 January Retrieved 25 May Archived from the original on 6 December Retrieved 4 May Retrieved 3 June Retrieved 17 June New Statesman.

Retrieved 6 December Retrieved 27 April Retrieved 11 October Retrieved 2 August Retrieved 26 May Retrieved 5 July — via the Margaret Thatcher Foundation.

She was not only the UK's first woman prime minister, but she was also the first woman prime minister in Europe. She brought in her radical right-wing economic policies, "Thatcherism," plus her confrontational style and personal frugality.

During her time in office, she continued to prepare breakfast and dinner for her husband, and even to do grocery shopping. She refused part of her salary.

Her political platform was that of limiting government and public spending, letting market forces control the economy. She was a monetarist, a follower of Milton Friedman's economic theories, and saw her role as eliminating socialism from Britain.

She also supported reduced taxes and public spending, and the deregulation of industry. She planned to privatize Britain's many government-owned industries and to end government subsidies to others.

She wanted legislation to seriously restrict union power and abolish tariffs except to non-European countries. She took office in the middle of a worldwide economic recession; the result of her policies in that context was serious economic disruption.

Bankruptcies and mortgage foreclosures increased, unemployment increased and industrial production fell considerably. Terrorism around Northern Ireland's status continued.

A steelworkers' strike disrupted the economy further. North Sea windfall receipts for off-shore oil helped lessen the economic effects.

In Britain had its highest unemployment since 3. One effect was the rise in social welfare payments, making it impossible for Thatcher to cut taxes as much as she'd planned.

There were riots in some cities. In the Brixton riots, police misconduct was exposed, further polarizing the nation. In , those industries still nationalized were forced to borrow and thus had to raise prices.

Margaret Thatcher's popularity was very low. Even within her own party, her popularity waned. In she began replacing more traditional conservatives with members of her own more radical circle.

She began to develop a close relationship with the new USA president, Ronald Reagan, whose administration supported many of the same economic policies hers did.

And then, in , Argentina invaded the Falkland Islands , perhaps encouraged by the effects of military cutbacks under Thatcher.

Margaret Thatcher sent 8, military personnel to fight a much larger number of Argentinians; her win of the Falkland's War restored her to popularity.

The press also covered the disappearance of Thatcher's son, Mark, in the Sahara Desert during an automobile rally.

He and his crew were found four days later, considerably off course. In the margin had been 44 seats. Thatcher continued her policies, and unemployment continued at over 3 million.

The crime rate and prison populations grew, and foreclosures continued. Financial corruption, including by many banks, was exposed.

Manufacturing continued to decline. Thatcher's government attempted to reduce the power of local councils, which had been the means of delivery of many social services.

As part of this effort, the Greater London Council was abolished. In , Thatcher first met with Soviet reform leader Gorbachev.

He may have been drawn to meet with her because her close relationship with President Reagan made her an attractive ally.

Thatcher that same year survived an assassination attempt when the IRA bombed a hotel where a Conservative Party conference was held. Her "stiff upper lip" in responding calmly and quickly added to her popularity and image.

In and , Thatcher's confrontation with the coal miners union led to a year-long strike which the union eventually lost. Thatcher used strikes in through as reasons to further restrict union power.

In , the European Union was created. Banking was affected by European Union rules, as German banks funded the East German economic rescue and revival.

Thatcher began to pull Britain back from European unity. Thatcher's defense minister Michael Heseltine resigned over her position. Thatcher's response was to become even more radical.

Privatization of nationalized industries provided a short-term gain for the treasury, as the stock was sold to the public.

Similar short-term gains were realized by selling state-owned housing to occupants, transforming many to private owners.

A attempt to establish a poll tax was highly controversial, even within the Conservative Party. This was a flat rate tax, also called the community charge, with every citizen paying the same amount, with some rebates for the poor.

The flat rate tax would replace property taxes which were based on the value of property owned. Local councils were given the power to levy the poll tax; Thatcher hoped that popular opinion would force these rates to be lower, and end Labour Party domination of the councils.

Demonstrations against the poll tax in London and elsewhere sometimes turned violent. She continued to try to fight inflation through high interest rates, despite continued problems with high unemployment.

A worldwide economic downturn aggravated economic problems for Britain. Conflict within the Conservative Party increased. Thatcher was not grooming a successor, though in she had become the prime minister with the longest continuous term in the UK's history since the early 19th century.

By that time, not a single other cabinet member from , when she was first elected, was still serving. Several, including Geoffrey Howe, the party's deputy leader, resigned in and over her policies.

In November of , Margaret Thatcher's position as head of the party was challenged by Michael Heseltine, and thus a vote was called.

Others joined the challenge. When Thatcher saw that she had failed on the first ballot, though none of her challengers won, she resigned as party head.

John Major, who had been a Thatcherite, was elected in her place as prime minister. Margaret Thatcher had been prime minister for 11 years and days.

The month after Thatcher's defeat, Queen Elizabeth II, with whom Thatcher had met weekly during her time as prime minister, appointed Thatcher a member of the exclusive Order of Merit, replacing the recently deceased Laurence Olivier.

She granted Denis Thatcher a hereditary baronetcy, the last such title granted to anyone outside the royal family. Margaret Thatcher founded the Thatcher Foundation to continue to work for her radically conservative economic vision.

She continued to travel and lecture, both within Britain and internationally. A regular theme was her criticism of the European Union's centralized power.

Mark, one of the Thatcher twins, married in His wife was an heiress from Dallas, Texas. In , the birth of Mark's first child made Margaret Thatcher a grandmother.

His daughter was born in In , Margaret Thatcher announced she would no longer run for her seat in Finchley. That year, she was made a life peer as Baroness Thatcher of Kesteven, and thus served in the House of Lords.

Margaret Thatcher worked on her memoirs in retirement. In she published The Downing Street Years to tell her own story about her years as prime minister.

Margaret Thatcher Years As Pm Video

Margaret Thatcher - The Woman Who Made Britain Great Again - Unseen Documentary

This meant relieving the burden on the mainstream British Army and elevating the role of the Ulster Defence Regiment and the Royal Ulster Constabulary.

She immediately decided to expel the invaders. The United Nations Security Council denounced Argentina's aggression, and France and other allies provided diplomatic and military support.

In the United States, Reagan was supportive, but he also launched diplomatic initiatives to resolve the crisis without a war.

In three days Thatcher assembled and sent a naval task force to take back control. In the six weeks it took to arrive, she engaged in diplomatic efforts moderated by US Secretary of State Alexander Haig , but Argentina rejected all compromise proposals.

Public opinion, and both major parties, backed Thatcher's aggressive response. However, it had to deal with a nearby land-based Argentine Air Force , using primarily surface-to-air heat-seeking missiles, Harriers , and V bombers, the last to crater the Port Stanley runway.

Argentine forces in the Falklands surrendered on 14 June ; the operation was hailed as a great triumph, with only British casualties. The " Falklands Factor ", along with the resumption of economic growth by the end of , bolstered the Government's popularity and led to Thatcher's victory in the most decisive landslide since the general election of However, this grouping failed to make its intended breakthrough, despite briefly holding an opinion poll lead.

In the June general election, the Conservatives won Though the gap between Labour and the Alliance was narrow in terms of votes, the Alliance vote was scattered and they won only a fraction of the seats that Labour held, with its concentrated base.

The Conservatives' share of the vote fell slightly 1. Labour's vote had fallen by far more 9. It has been alleged that the Thatcher cabinet attempted to "cover up" the events of the scandal.

Nigel Lawson , View from No. Thatcher was committed to reducing the power of the trade unions but, unlike the Heath government, adopted a strategy of incremental change rather than a single Act.

Several unions launched strikes in response, but these actions eventually collapsed. Gradually, Thatcher's reforms reduced the power and influence of the unions.

The changes were chiefly focused upon preventing the recurrence of the large-scale industrial actions of the s, but were also intended to ensure that the consequences for the participants would be severe if any future action was taken.

The reforms were also aimed, Thatcher claimed, to democratise the unions, and return power to the members. The most significant measures were to make secondary industrial action illegal, to force union leadership to first win a ballot of the union membership before calling a strike, and to abolish the closed shop.

Further laws banned workplace ballots and imposed postal ballots. Coal miners were highly organised and had defeated Prime Minister Heath.

Thatcher expected a major confrontation, planned ahead for one, and avoided trouble before she was ready. In the end the miners' strike of —85 proved a decisive victory for her—one that permanently discouraged trade unionists.

The Government had made preparations to counter a strike by the NUM long in advance by building up coal stocks, keeping many miners at work, and co-ordinating police action to stop massive picketing.

Her policies defeated the NUM strategy of causing severe cuts in the electricity supply—the legacy of the industrial disputes of would not be repeated.

The images of crowds of militant miners attempting to prevent other miners from working proved a shock even to some supporters of the strikes.

The NUM never held a strike vote, which allowed many miners to keep working and prevented other unions from supporting the strike. The mounting desperation and poverty of the striking families led to divisions within the regional NUM branches, and a breakaway union, the Union of Democratic Mineworkers UDM , was soon formed.

More and more frustrated miners, resigned to the impending failure of the strike and worn down by months of protests, began to defy the union's rulings, starting splinter groups and advising workers that returning to work was the only viable option.

The miners' strike lasted a full year before the NUM leadership conceded without a deal. Conservative governments proceeded to close all but 15 of the country's pits, with the remaining 15 being sold off and privatised in Private companies have since then acquired licences to open new pits and open-cast sites, with the majority of the original mines destroyed and the land redeveloped.

The defeat of the miners' strike led to a long period of demoralisation in the whole of the trade union movement.

The week miners' strike of —85 was followed a year later by the week Wapping dispute launched by newspaper printers in London. The union rejected the offer and on 24 January its 6, members at Murdoch's papers went on strike.

Meanwhile, News International had built and clandestinely equipped a new printing plant in the London district of Wapping.

However the new plant in Wapping did not have a closed shop contract. However the NUJ urged them not to work there; the " refuseniks " refused to go to Wapping.

Enough printers did come— in all—to produce the same number of papers that it took 6, men to print at the old shop.

The efficiency was obvious and frightened the union into holding out an entire year. Thousands of union pickets tried to block shipments out of the plant; they injured policemen.

There were 1, arrests. The pickets failed. The union tried an illegal secondary boycott and was fined in court, losing all its assets which had been used for pensions.

In the next two years Britain's national newspapers opened new plants and abandoned Fleet Street, adopting the new technology with far fewer employees.

They had even more reason to support Thatcherism. Thatcher's political and economic philosophy emphasised reduced state intervention, free markets , and entrepreneurialism.

Since gaining power, she had experimented in selling off a small nationalised company, the National Freight Company, to its workers, with a surprisingly positive response.

One critic on the left dismissed privatisation as "the biggest electoral bribe in history". Many people took advantage of share offers, although many sold their shares immediately for a quick profit and therefore the proportion of shares held by individuals rather than institutions did not increase.

The policy of privatisation , while anathema to many on the left, has become synonymous with Thatcherism and was also followed by Tony Blair 's government.

Wider share-ownership and council house sales became known as "popular" capitalism to its supporters a description coined by John Redwood.

In February , in what was generally viewed as a significant snub from the centre of the British establishment, [60] the University of Oxford voted to refuse Thatcher an honorary degree in protest against her cuts in funding for higher education.

In December Thatcher was criticised from another former Tory bastion when the Church of England report Faith in the City blamed decay of the inner cities on the Government's financial stringency and called for a redistribution of wealth.

However the Government had already introduced special employment and training measures, [66] and ministers dismissed the report as "muddle-headed" and uncosted.

Soon after, Thatcher suffered her government's only defeat in the House of Commons, with the failure of the Shops Bill The bill, which would have legalised Sunday shopping , was defeated by a Christian right backbench rebellion, with 72 Conservatives voting against the Government Bill.

Thatcher's preference for defence ties with the United States was demonstrated in the Westland affair when, despite ostensibly maintaining a neutral stance, she and Trade and Industry Secretary Leon Brittan allowed the helicopter manufacturer Westland , a vital defence contractor, to link with the Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation of the United States.

Defence Secretary Michael Heseltine had organised a consortium of European and British firms, including the Italian firm Agusta , to make a rival bid.

He claimed that Thatcher had prevented proper discussion by cancelling a promised meeting of the Cabinet Economic Affairs Committee early in December Cabinet eventually 19 December forbade any minister from actively campaigning for either option.

Thatcher thought Heseltine too powerful and popular a figure to sack. Heseltine resigned and walked out of the meeting in protest, claiming that Thatcher had broken the conventions of Cabinet government.

He remained an influential critic and potential leadership challenger, and would eventually prove instrumental in Thatcher's fall in Brittan was then forced to resign for having, earlier that month and with the agreement of Thatcher's press adviser Bernard Ingham , ordered the leak of a confidential legal letter critical of Heseltine.

For a time Thatcher's survival as Prime Minister seemed in doubt, but her personal involvement in the leak remained unproven and she survived after a poor debating performance in the Commons 27 January by Opposition Leader Neil Kinnock.

The GLC was the biggest council in Europe ; under the leadership of the Labour socialist Ken Livingstone it had doubled its spending in three years, and Thatcher insisted on its abolition as an efficiency measure, transferring most duties to the boroughs, with veto power over major building, engineering and maintenance projects being given to the environment secretary.

The GLC also warned that the break-up of the county councils would lead to the creation of "endless joint committees and over 60 quangos".

During the s there was a great improvement in the United Kingdom's productivity growth relative to other advanced capitalist countries.

The United Kingdom's growth rate was more impressive, ranking first in the OECD in , a statistical achievement that Thatcher and her government exploited to the full in the general election campaign of that year.

On the early morning of 12 October , the day before her 59th birthday, Thatcher escaped injury in the Brighton hotel bombing during the Conservative Party Conference when the hotel was bombed by the Provisional Irish Republican Army.

A prominent member of the Cabinet, Norman Tebbit , was injured, and his wife Margaret was left paralysed. Thatcher herself escaped assassination by sheer luck.

She insisted that the conference open on time the next day and made her speech as planned in defiance of the bombers, a gesture which won widespread approval across the political spectrum.

The agreement was greeted with fury by Northern Irish unionists. The Ulster Unionists and Democratic Unionists made an electoral pact and on 23 January , staged an ad-hoc referendum by resigning their seats and contesting the subsequent by-elections, losing only one, to the nationalist Social Democratic and Labour Party SDLP.

However, unlike the Sunningdale Agreement of , they found they could not bring the agreement down by a general strike. This was another effect of the changed balance of power in industrial relations.

In a decision that came under heavy attack from the Labour Party, American forces were permitted by Thatcher to station nuclear cruise missiles at British bases, arousing mass protests by the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament.

A critical factor was Thatcher's idea that Mikhail Gorbachev was the key to the solution. She convinced Reagan that he was "a man we can do business with.

The treaty did not cover sea-launched missiles of the sort Britain possessed. By May , after on-site investigations by both sides, missiles had been destroyed.

In the aftermath of a series of terrorist attacks on US military personnel in Europe, which were believed to have been executed at Colonel Gaddafi 's command, President Reagan decided to carry out a bombing raid on Libya.

Both France and Spain refused to allow US aircraft to fly over their territory for the raid. Thatcher herself had earlier expressed opposition to "retaliatory strikes that are against international law" and had not followed the US in an embargo of Libyan oil.

However Thatcher felt that as the US had given support to Britain during the Falklands and that America was a major ally against a possible Soviet attack in Western Europe, she felt obliged to allow US aircraft to use bases situated in Britain.

Later that year in America, President Reagan persuaded Congress to approve of an extradition treaty which closed a legal loophole by which IRA members and Volunteers escaped extradition by claiming their killings were political acts.

This had been previously opposed by Irish-Americans for years but was passed after Reagan used Thatcher's support in the Libyan raid as a reason to pass it.

Grenada was a former colony and current independent Commonwealth nation under the Queen. The British government exercised no authority there and did not object when Maurice Bishop took control in a coup in In October he was overthrown by dissident Marxists, and killed.

This alarmed other small countries in the region who had a regional defence organisation, the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States OECS which formally asked the United States for help in removing the new regime.

Reagan promptly agreed, and almost overnight ordered a major invasion of Grenada. He notified Thatcher a few hours before the invasion, but he did not ask her consent.

She was privately highly annoyed, but in cabinet and in Parliament she announced that Britain supported the Americans, saying "We stand by the United States".

Thatcher resisted international pressure to impose economic sanctions on South Africa , where the United Kingdom was the biggest foreign investor and principal trading partner.

This meant that the status quo remained the same, and British companies continued to operate in South Africa, although other European countries continued trading to a lesser degree.

According to Geoffrey Howe , one of her closest allies, Thatcher regarded the ANC , which fought to end apartheid, as a "typical terrorist organisation", as late as At the end of March , four South Africans were arrested in Coventry, remanded in custody, and charged with contravening the UN arms embargo , which prohibited exports to South Africa of military equipment.

Thatcher took a personal interest in the Coventry Four , and 10 Downing Street requested daily summaries of the case from the prosecuting authority, HM Customs and Excise.

In June , Thatcher received a visit from P. Botha , the first South African premier to come to Britain since his nation had left the Commonwealth in Thatcher defended Botha's visit as an encouragement to reform, [93] but he ignored her concern over Mandela's continued detainment, [91] and although a new constitution brought coloured people of mixed race and Indians into a tricameral assembly, 22 million blacks continued to be excluded from the representation.

In July , Thatcher, citing the support of Helen Suzman , a South African anti-apartheid MP, reaffirmed her belief that economic sanctions against Pretoria would be immoral because they would make thousands of black workers unemployed; instead she characterised industry as the instrument that was breaking down apartheid.

Thatcher's opposition to economic sanctions was challenged by visiting anti-apartheid activists, including South African bishop Desmond Tutu , whom she met in London, and Oliver Tambo , exiled leader of the outlawed ANC guerrilla movement, [] whose links to the Soviet bloc she viewed with suspicion, [] and whom she declined to see because he espoused violence and refused to condemn guerrilla attacks and mob killings of black policemen, local officials and their families.

At a Commonwealth summit in Nassau in October , Thatcher agreed to impose limited sanctions and to set up a contact group to promote a dialogue with Pretoria, [] after she was warned by Third World leaders, including Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad , that her opposition threatened to break up the nation Commonwealth.

In Thatcher visited China with a view to resolve the difficulties that would inevitably be encountered as the New Territories were due to be returned to the Chinese in Under the terms of the agreement, China was obliged to leave Hong Kong's economic status unchanged after the handover on 1 July , for a period of at least fifty years.

She famously declared at the summit: "We are not asking the Community or anyone else for money. We are simply asking to have our own money back".

This still remains in effect, although Tony Blair later agreed to significantly reduce the size of the rebate. It periodically causes political controversy among the members of the European Union.

Bell , France and Britain, — the long separation , , p. Thatcher, like many Britons, had long been fascinated by the idea of a tunnel under the English Channel linking to France.

By the s circumstances had changed radically. The British Empire collapsed and the Suez crisis made clear that Britain was no longer a superpower, and had to depend on its military allies on the continent.

Labour was worried that a tunnel would bring new workers and lower wage rates. Britain's prestige, security and wealth now seemed safest when tied closely to the continent.

Thatcher and Mitterrand agreed on the project and set up study groups. Mitterrand as a socialist said the French government would pay its share.

Thatcher insisted on private financing for the British share, and the City assured her that private enterprise was eager to fund it.

Final decisions were announced in January Thatcher led her party to a landslide victory in the general election with a seat majority.

He was weakened by his party's commitment to unilateral nuclear disarmament at a time Thatcher was helping to end the Cold War.

Fleet Street the national newspapers mostly supported her and were rewarded with regular press briefings by her press secretary, Bernard Ingham.

Despite her third straight victory she remained a polarising figure. Hatred from the far left motivated scores of songs that "expressed anger, amusement, defiance and ridicule" towards her.

In , Chancellor of the Exchequer Nigel Lawson reacted to a market fall with a reflationary budget, stoking inflation and precipitating a slide in the Government's fortunes.

Overall, the economic record of Thatcher's government is disputed. In relative terms, it could be held there was a modest revival of British fortunes.

Real gross domestic product had grown by However under Thatcherite management the macro-economy was unstable, even by the standards of the Keynesian era of stop-go.

The amplitude of fluctuations in gross domestic product and real gross private non-residential fixed capital formation was greater in the United Kingdom than for the OECD.

Though an early backer of decriminalisation of male homosexuality , at the Conservative Party conference Thatcher's speech read: "Children who need to be taught to respect traditional moral values are being taught that they have an inalienable right to be gay ".

Backbench Conservative MPs and peers had already begun a backlash against the "promotion" of homosexuality and, in December , the controversial " Section 28 " was added as an amendment to what became the Local Government Act Thatcher, a trained chemist, became publicly concerned with environmental issues in the late s.

At Bruges, Belgium , in , Thatcher made a speech in which she outlined her opposition to proposals from the European Community for a federal structure and increasing centralisation of decision-making.

Although she had supported British membership, Thatcher believed that the role of the EC should be limited to ensuring free trade and effective competition, and feared that new EC regulations would reverse the changes she was making in the UK, stating that she had "not successfully rolled back the frontiers of the state in Britain" only to see her reforms undermined by "a European super-state exercising a new dominance from Brussels".

In —88 Chancellor Nigel Lawson had been following a policy of "shadowing the deutschmark", i. Thatcher's popularity once again declined.

At the meeting, they both threatened they would resign if their demands were not met. Lawson resigned that October, feeling that Thatcher had undermined him.

Thatcher continued to be the leading international advocate of a policy of contact with apartheid South Africa , [] and the most forthright opponent of economic sanctions against the country, which was ruled by a white minority government.

Rejecting the US policy of disinvestment as a mistake, she argued a prosperous society would be more receptive to change.

In October , Thatcher said she would be unlikely to visit South Africa unless black nationalist leader Nelson Mandela was released from prison, [] and in March she stressed the need to release him in order for multi-party talks to take place, [] urging that the African National Congress 's promise to suspend violence should be enough to permit his release, and that the "renunciation of violence" should not be an absolute condition for negotiations for a settlement.

Thatcher met reformist F. Thatcher, therefore, welcomed de Klerk's decision in February to release Mandela and lift the ban on the ANC, and said the change vindicated her positive policy: "We believe in carrots as well as sticks".

Thatcher said the European Community's voluntary ban on new investment should be lifted when Mandela was released. My release from prison was the direct result of the people inside and outside South Africa.

It was also the result of the immense pressure exerted on the South African Government by the international community, in particular from the people of the UK.

Thatcher's opposition to sanctions left her isolated within the Commonwealth and the European Community, and Mandela did not take up an early offer to meet her, [] opposing her proposed visit to his country as premature.

Mandela delayed meeting Thatcher until he had gathered support for sanctions from other world leaders in the course of a four-week, nation tour of Europe and the United States.

The NATO nations or in general agreement on delicately handling the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe in , the reunification of Germany in —91, and the end of communism and the Soviet Union in There was no gloating or effort to humiliate Gorbachev.

Bush wanted to make NATO more of a political than a military alliance, Thatcher, spoke out for the importance of the military role.

Bush said: "Margaret still feared the worst from reunification and, like Mitterrand, worried that the Germans might "go neutral" and refuse to permit stationing nuclear weapons on their soil.

In the event, Germany was reunited and there was no neutralisation. Thatcher pushed President Bush to take strong military action in reversing Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in , to which she sent over 45, troops.

In the following year, they saw combat under her successor John Major in Operation Granby. As Meyer was a virtually unknown backbench MP, he was viewed as a " stalking horse " candidate for more prominent members of the party.

Thatcher easily defeated Meyer's challenge, but there were sixty ballot papers either cast for Meyer or abstaining, a surprisingly large number for a sitting Prime Minister.

Her supporters in the Party, however, viewed the results as a success, claiming that after ten years as Prime Minister and with approximately Conservative MPs voting, the opposition was surprisingly small.

Thatcher was fiercely committed to a new tax—commonly called the "poll tax"—that would apply in equal amounts to rich and poor alike, despite intense public opposition.

Margaret Thatcher's popularity was very low. Even within her own party, her popularity waned. In she began replacing more traditional conservatives with members of her own more radical circle.

She began to develop a close relationship with the new USA president, Ronald Reagan, whose administration supported many of the same economic policies hers did.

And then, in , Argentina invaded the Falkland Islands , perhaps encouraged by the effects of military cutbacks under Thatcher.

Margaret Thatcher sent 8, military personnel to fight a much larger number of Argentinians; her win of the Falkland's War restored her to popularity.

The press also covered the disappearance of Thatcher's son, Mark, in the Sahara Desert during an automobile rally.

He and his crew were found four days later, considerably off course. In the margin had been 44 seats. Thatcher continued her policies, and unemployment continued at over 3 million.

The crime rate and prison populations grew, and foreclosures continued. Financial corruption, including by many banks, was exposed. Manufacturing continued to decline.

Thatcher's government attempted to reduce the power of local councils, which had been the means of delivery of many social services.

As part of this effort, the Greater London Council was abolished. In , Thatcher first met with Soviet reform leader Gorbachev.

He may have been drawn to meet with her because her close relationship with President Reagan made her an attractive ally.

Thatcher that same year survived an assassination attempt when the IRA bombed a hotel where a Conservative Party conference was held.

Her "stiff upper lip" in responding calmly and quickly added to her popularity and image. In and , Thatcher's confrontation with the coal miners union led to a year-long strike which the union eventually lost.

Thatcher used strikes in through as reasons to further restrict union power. In , the European Union was created.

Banking was affected by European Union rules, as German banks funded the East German economic rescue and revival. Thatcher began to pull Britain back from European unity.

Thatcher's defense minister Michael Heseltine resigned over her position. Thatcher's response was to become even more radical.

Privatization of nationalized industries provided a short-term gain for the treasury, as the stock was sold to the public. Similar short-term gains were realized by selling state-owned housing to occupants, transforming many to private owners.

A attempt to establish a poll tax was highly controversial, even within the Conservative Party. This was a flat rate tax, also called the community charge, with every citizen paying the same amount, with some rebates for the poor.

The flat rate tax would replace property taxes which were based on the value of property owned. Local councils were given the power to levy the poll tax; Thatcher hoped that popular opinion would force these rates to be lower, and end Labour Party domination of the councils.

Demonstrations against the poll tax in London and elsewhere sometimes turned violent. She continued to try to fight inflation through high interest rates, despite continued problems with high unemployment.

A worldwide economic downturn aggravated economic problems for Britain. Conflict within the Conservative Party increased.

Thatcher was not grooming a successor, though in she had become the prime minister with the longest continuous term in the UK's history since the early 19th century.

By that time, not a single other cabinet member from , when she was first elected, was still serving.

Several, including Geoffrey Howe, the party's deputy leader, resigned in and over her policies. In November of , Margaret Thatcher's position as head of the party was challenged by Michael Heseltine, and thus a vote was called.

Others joined the challenge. When Thatcher saw that she had failed on the first ballot, though none of her challengers won, she resigned as party head.

John Major, who had been a Thatcherite, was elected in her place as prime minister. Margaret Thatcher had been prime minister for 11 years and days.

The month after Thatcher's defeat, Queen Elizabeth II, with whom Thatcher had met weekly during her time as prime minister, appointed Thatcher a member of the exclusive Order of Merit, replacing the recently deceased Laurence Olivier.

She granted Denis Thatcher a hereditary baronetcy, the last such title granted to anyone outside the royal family.

Margaret Thatcher founded the Thatcher Foundation to continue to work for her radically conservative economic vision. She continued to travel and lecture, both within Britain and internationally.

A regular theme was her criticism of the European Union's centralized power. Mark, one of the Thatcher twins, married in His wife was an heiress from Dallas, Texas.

In , the birth of Mark's first child made Margaret Thatcher a grandmother. His daughter was born in In , Margaret Thatcher announced she would no longer run for her seat in Finchley.

That year, she was made a life peer as Baroness Thatcher of Kesteven, and thus served in the House of Lords.

Margaret Thatcher worked on her memoirs in retirement. In she published The Downing Street Years to tell her own story about her years as prime minister.

In , she published The Path to Power , to detail her own early life and early political career, before becoming prime minister. Both books were best-sellers.

Carol Thatcher published a biography of her father, Denis Thatcher, in In , Margaret Thatcher had several small strokes and gave up her lecture tours.

She also published that year another book: Statecraft: Strategies for a Changing World. Denis Thatcher survived a heart-bypass operation in early , seeming to make a full recovery.

Later that year, he was diagnosed with pancreatic cancer and died on June Mark Thatcher inherited his father's title and became known as Sir Mark Thatcher.

As a result of his guilty plea, he was given a large fine and suspended the sentence, and permitted to move in with his mother in London.

Mark was unable to move to the United States where his wife and children moved after Mark's arrest. Mark and his wife divorced in and both remarried others in Carol Thatcher, a freelance contributor to the BBC One program since , lost that job in when she referred to an aboriginal tennis player as a "golliwog," and refused to apologize for use of what was taken as a racial term.

Thatcher was unable to attend a birthday party for her, organized by Prime Minister David Cameron, the wedding of Prince William to Catherine Middleton in , or a ceremony unveiling a statue of Ronald Reagan outside the American Embassy later in When Sarah Palin told the press that she would visit Margaret Thatcher on a trip to London, Palin was advised that such a visit would not be possible.

She died on April 8, , after suffering another stroke. The Brexit vote was described as a throwback to the Thatcher years. Prime Minister Theresa May, the second woman to serve as British prime minister, claimed inspiration by Thatcher but was seen as less committed to free markets and corporate power.

In , a German far-right leader claimed Thatcher as his role model. Share Flipboard Email.

Zwar habe Hayeks intellektuelle Ablehnung des Sozialismus sicher Thatcher, Keith Joseph und weitere politische Weggefährten beeinflusst, beim Thatcherismus spiele der Hayeksche volkswirtschaftliche und makroökonomische Ansatz aber eine deutlich geringere Www Lotos Wetten De als Friedmans Monetarismus. Der Entwicklung erneuerbarer Energien schenkte sie wenig Beachtung. In einem Interview Skat Spielen Startseite der BBC am Sprudelnde Quelle für Privatunternehmen Memento vom Commons Wikiquote. Ab dem 3. Alwyn W. Zudem habe sich die Armutsrate nahezu verdoppelt. Bush zu einem militärischen Eingreifen. Mai das Amt des Premierministers an Tony Blair übergeben.

1 comments

  1. Kekree

    Aller Wahrscheinlichkeit nach. Aller Wahrscheinlichkeit nach.

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